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Database on political history and ongoing world process.
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Updates Document available above lacks descriptions to updates since february 2011. These and future
updates willbe presented on ths website below.
Egypt The ruling military dissolves parliament and suspends constitution. By this the military
holds full political power in Egypt. Even though we consider this as a step towards
democratisation, the actual status of Egypt at this point is that all powers are vested in a military junta. Free elections are promised to take place in 6 months.
Bahrain Emergency situation following protests and violent respond by government. Opposition
candidates withdraws from parliament. Some concessions seems likely(follow up!)
Bahrain Partial normalisation as king opens up for dialogue with opposition. Violence ceases,
sporadic protests continues.
Libya Libya in a state of emergency following massive protests and a much violent
response by government. Rebels forces Gaddaffi to retreat to Tripoli, followed
by strong offensive by Gaddaffi. Retaking all territory to Benghazi. At this point
UN passes security resolution 1973, guaranteeing a “non-fly zone” over Libya and
launches military operaton pushing Gaddaffi forces strongly. Status remaining in early
June, when effectively reducing Gaddaffis authority.
Chad Parliamentarian elections held, giving a clear majority and victory to president Deby
and allies. However opposition is significantly stronger and will be able to form a more
active policy towards the government. Monitors declare this election generally free. This
status making a transfer of Chad from a semi-authoritarian state to a limited democracy.
Niger Second round in presidential electons held. As this election is considered free and matches democratic standards, this concludes a full restoration of a democratic political system.
Oman The sultan of Oman grants legislative powers to the parliament and thereby strengthening
its authority significantly. Check further the specified political powers of parliament(such
as election, right to lift motion etc). This is of importance to determine how the legislative
powers are divided between parliament and sultan.
Egypt Egyptian electrate approves constitutional changes providing for a new political order and holding of elections this fall. Secular opposition critical. The constitution shows clear signs of improvement but in many perspectives also insufficient. Providing for a strong but limited president. It may very well function in a democratic oder, but the judicial guarantees of democratic rights can perhaps be lacking IF threatened?
Bahrain State of emergency declared as new protests escalates. The government asks for intervention from neighbouring states to defeat protesters. Massive crackdown follows
Yemen State of emergency declared by President Saleh. Government is dismissed. Increased repression against protesters, followed by shift of allegiance of senior military officers. Taking side of the protesters.
Côte d’Ivoire State of emergency and deteriorating security situation following escalating military conflict between forces of Gbagbo and Ouattara. Coalition negotiations failing. Even though Gbagbo claiming to be president in office a strong deterioration of state apparatus is definitive. Ouattara is by world community reognised s letime president
Nigeria Democratic breakthrough of Nigeria as parliamentarian elections are held, significantly improving democratic standards. Considered free and fair, and opposition grows strongly. Goodluck Jonathan is ater ected and installed official and democratic President
Côte d’Ivoire Political normalisation and interim rule as Ouattara forces defeats and captures Gbagbo. Outattara taking presidential duties in an interim status, exercising significant and strong authorities as parliament doesn’t function as legitimate institution
Syria President Al-Assad ifts emergency laws, thereby “allowing” demonstrations and “limited” political rights. As a political status this may indicate somewhat of a ecentralisation of polital authorities from president to parliament.
Note!!! This status can not be considered implemented t this point as simultaneous protests and violent government response transfers Syria in to a state of mergency.
Cuba Party congress held where president Raul Castro announces term limits of senior political offices. This is a indication on further political decentralisation, where parliament and rty from this point will be superior in Cuba.
Yemen Upcoming interim status is uned s president Saleh agrees to resign during may, as a result f agreement with opposition. Vice President is to form government. Note!! This status will not be considered taking place a this point, instead violence escalates as Saleh refuses to implement agreement and Yemen is under increased state of emergency.
Constitutional changes approved in referendum. By this presidential authorities are strengthened
and will have stronger role in legislative/-Judicial authorities
Following agreement between Fatah and Hamas a coalition and interim government is to be formed,
to organise elections 2011. This change is valid to both Palestine and Gaza.
Autonomous chinese region Inner Mongolia is under martial law, declared after popular protests.
Check further actual impact of this!!
Death of authoritarian president Bagapsh. He is succeeded by Vice-President. This will likely indicate a tranfer
to interim rule, or decentralisation of power from President
State of emergency lifted and partial normalisation. We may however expect a strengthen role of the monarch
/government in comparison to previous state of limited democracy. King is from this point somewhat authoritarian
Parliamentarian elections are held, in accordance with democratic standards. Won by governing party VMRO-
DPMNE, but opposition growing. By this Macedonia is again an actual democracy, with Parliamentary-
dominated Presidenial system (DR from 70 to 97)
Interim status and government in effect after President Saleh is hurt in attack and forced to rehabilitation. Political powers vested in Vice-President
Constitutional reforms approved in referendum. By this authorities of the monarch is to be reduced and a parliamentarian system of government is determined by law where main powers are vested in
PM which is to be selected by a majority in parliament
Full independence of South Sudan in force. This coincides with the dissolution of southern wing of Congress Party that is absorbed into SPLM. By this S. Sudan is an even stronger one-party dominated state
with institutional opposition strongly marginalised.
North Sudan is made a 'de facto' one party state following with-
drawal of SPLM deputies upon south's independence. Congress Party
will by this control nearly all seats of parliament.
Emir introduces constitutional reform where more legislative power is vested to parliament. This marking
constitutonal reform changing status and improving democratic standards somewhat
Rebel forces conquers Tripoli and defeats Gaddafi regime that retreats. Interm status established,
awaiting establishment of government. Rebel forces taking control of Tripoli, defeating sporadic
Transitional National councl transferred to Tripoli and establish functioning government. Interim
government promising to introduce democratic reorms, multiparty system and prepare for elections.
Fightingagainst remnants of Gaddaf loyals continues, but does not effect political status.
Provisional president Aleksndr Ankvab is elected official president of Abkhazia in slioghtly disputed
but clearly improved democratic standards. Semi-Authoritarian status remained as President shares
power with parliament strongly dominated by loyals to former president.