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15 most recent changes DV=Democracy Value
Military junta organises new transitional body with opposition ahead of
future restoration of constitutional order. However governing party
PAIGC not included. DV 47 is therefore questionable.
Coup d'etat by military captures political leadership and annulls forth-
coming elections. However promising to restore constitutional order.
Following death of president, VP Joyce Banda succeeds. Today representing
an opposition party, this opens up for more pluralistic and less party
dominated rule. Like Senegal below Banda holds strong and democratic
powers alongside parliament (ltd dem)
Military junta restores parliament transfers political powers to speaker
of this as President pending fresh elections are to be held. Democratic interim rule
By elections held under generally free conditions. NLD strongly succesful
and seat won by Aung San Suu Kyi. This transfers Burma to a limited democracy
President Wade acknowledges victory of opponent Mackey Sall in democratic
presidential elections. Sall will rule alongside a "limited democratisised"
parliament. We recognise Senegal as a functioning democracy with strong
Following coup d'etat in march, the military promises and plans to org-
anise elections and restoration of constitutional order. This transfers
Mali to an interim military rule.
Fresh presidential elections held after previously annulled.
Generally free and won by Leonid Tibilov, aftedrwards recognised
by opponent. Hereby a generally democratic president shares power
with continued semi-authoritarian and one-party dominated parliament.
This combined makes South Ossetia a limited democracy.
Coup d'etat by military overthrows democratic government. Constitution
suspended and direct rule of military junta in force. Early
statement say democracy is to be restored. (After just reaching a
record All-Time average democracy value of 79,03, this coup has
downgraded this to 78,53)
Check further!! Political leadership outlines political reforms to
increase accountability. This may result in a strengthening role
of parliament/congress, thereby strengthening accountability and
DV(25 to 40). Check further, if and when actually implemented.
Parliamentarian elections held in two rounds. Early results indicate
a significant political plurality, a sign of democratic brekthrough
Second round will confirm whether Abkhazia will transfer to a
Clearly unfair presidential elections held where PM Vladimir Putin
is elected to a third term as President, succeeding Medvedev.
We may suppose this makes presidency once more dominant in russian
politics, and due to the increased strength of oppositon in Duma
the president takes strong executve and dominant role. Aftermath
of election shows tougher force against oppositional protesters,
than related to december Duma election.
This status is to take effect following installation in may
Parliamentarian elections held without participation of opposition
due to restrictions on reformist candidates. How to label Iran
following this is somewhat complicted. Already before under a
semi-authoritarian rule, the closest status is “De Facto” one-party.
Still there are contesting party group mainly related to Ahmadinejad br>and Ayattollah. Although these are conpeting one another, there are
no "real" opposition in Iran from this point on.
New ”multiparty” constitution approved in referendum. Opening up
to opposition parties, however under restrictions. This status
will not be in force before implemented and before the ongoing
situation of martial law/emergency status due to crackdown on
opposition is ended someway. Under the ongoing situation this
emergency situation supersedes any other political development.
Presidential elections conducted, in order to further implement
democratc reforms. However former Vice-President Abd Rabbuh
Mansur al-Hadi is sole canddate, also promoted by opposition.
President will exercse power together with a parliament, considered
not fully democratic until fresh elections. This does however mark
a sep towards democratic rule in Yemen.
Democratically elected President Shaheen resigns, allegedly under gunpoint
making this a form of coup d'etat. However political institutions and
normality remains as power is transferred to Vice-President according
to constitution. Democratic Value determined based on how to consider
this development, very much similar to Honduras 2009.
One-Party dominated and semi-authoritarian parliamentarian
elections. Disputed but oppose to previous parliament
opposition will gain institutional representation.
Constitutional reforms during 2011 reducing presidential
authorities are fully imposed as new president takes
office. President is hencefrward strongly subordiate
politics are partly remained, all activty demands
countersignature of PM. Determinaton of political
is under further examnation, if made Parlimentarian
Parliaentarian elections are concluded. As parliament
convens with a plurality and generally democratic
conditon, Egypt will eter a new interim status.
Thus entering next phase of democratisation to be
finalised uon presidential elections 2012
During 2011 a few countries may be considered for
changed political status, without definitive
evidence yet. Ukraine and Turkey has been at
risk to transfer from functioning to limited
democracy. In Africa Burkina Faso and Malawi
may be reconsidered a transfer from limited
democracy to Semi-Authoritarian rule.
Uncertain change!! Hungary has introduced several
constitutional reforms during recent year and
dominating Fidesz government, that has been
widely critisised by opposition and EU. This
may perhaps (sadly) indicate a transition from
functioning democracy to limited democracy.
Check this further if really valid.
We may suppose that normalisation and lifting of the
martial law has taken place at some time after may
Normalisation as Km Jong-Un is installed Supreme
Leader. Likely possessing same strong, authori-
tarian but not overwhelming powers as his father
and predecessor. Balance of power with other
institutions is not fully clear.
Constitutional reform launched by President
Medvedev, actually effecting status of russian
republics rather than Russia as a whole. According
to these provisions direct election of governors
is to be restored. Changed status of republics are
Death of Supreme Leader Kim Jong Il is announced.
In one of the world's worst dictatorships, this
will mark an interim status as powers vested in
KJI will be transferred to parliament, party or
presidium. KJI possessed strong but not over-
whelming powers, this marks a decentralisation
until current uncertainity is over.
Presidential elections held, resulting in a defeat of
longtime, previously authoritarian President Igor
Smirnov. These electons may be regardedas generally
fair, with two main contenders to combat in second
round. However sharing power with parliament (dominted)
by Renewal party.Examine further how well oppositon may
function and how democratic Transnistra shall be regarded.
Papua New Guinea
Court decision determines a four month long political
deadlock by declare sitting PM as in an illegal
position. Previous PM Somare is claimant of government
until further actions are made. We may at this point
declare PNG to be in an interim status
Parliamentarian electons held, in order to restore
parliament as a functoning institution half a
year after Outtaras assumption of power. Sadly
opposition parties are boycotting election, which
undermines its legitimacy. Since this is a
decision by the opposition it is hard to determine
the political status/situation by now.
Duma elections held,clearly disputed and including
repressive acts towards opposition. Nevertheless
outcome proved to present a significant setback
to Unified Russia. With just about 50% of the
though democratic criterias are far freom fulfilled,
the election is an improvment and in practice Russia
may function as a limited democracy however combined
with a strong and dominating executive.
Following a record long politica deadlock, a coalition
is finally concluded resulting in a restored parliam-
Still uncertain! Presidential and parliamentarian
elections held, under possibly slightly disputed
conditions. Election campaign dominated by Kabila.
Results to be presented Dec 6. Examne this further,
it may lead to transition from Actual to Limted
Parliamentarian elections held in order to restore
instituton of parliament. Since Egypt has a
Presidential framework, executive will remain
in military council or possible interim government
until presidential elections are held, planned for
June 2012. Examine further democratic legitimacy of
elections, but initial reports predict it as generally free.
Interim status taking effect as President Saleh resigns to
and fresh elections to be held.
Full transition to democratic rule as a coalition cabinet of
Ennahda and secular parties is
See database to the left for earlier entries.